The aim of ‘A measure of sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness using directional distance functions and data envelopment analysis’ is to estimate a set of indicators of relative efficiency in the Brazilian agricultural sector. The aim is also to satisfy the concept of Pareto optimality, simultaneous economic empowerment, ecological dimensions, and social functions. In order to accomplish this goal, the methods of Directional Distance Functions and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) were applied. These indicators confirm, in different ways, the hypothesis that it is possible to perform consistent productive strategies with the maximization of social welfare, despite the apparent antagonism, among these three dimensions. In addition, it is shown that efficient Brazilian states tend to combine the three dimensions in different ways.