As a result of this crisis, and as this volume shows, a series of mutations, transformations, and experiments have emerged within and beyond the industry as actors and institutions have sought to develop new means to enable the musical economy to reproduce itself. During the middle of the second decade of the twenty-first century, a number of high-profile artists undertook enterprises that might point to the new direction in which the musical economy is headed. For example, in September 2014, users of Apple’s iTunes service discovered that the new album by the band U2 had been downloaded into their music collection at no financial costs as part of Apple’s promotion of the iPhone 6. Although the music was given away freely, the cost was born by Apple’s marketing division, as the band and its record company received an unspecified fee which, according to the New York Times, made up part of a $100 million dollar (USD) budget given over to the campaign (Sissario 2014). This form of promotional funding has become an additional and, in some cases, vital income stream for those artists who are prepared to link their music to other products or services as part of what are known as “brand partnerships” (Harris 2013). Yet, in this case, even if U2 had not been paid, there might have been a logic for them simply giving the music away, because since at least 2008 more revenue has been made from performing music in front of an audience than from selling recordings of it (Leyshon 2014; Wynn and Dominguez-Villegas, this volume). Indeed, at the time of writing, U2 hold the record for generating the
largest gross income from a single tour (Leyshon 2014), so that the costs of recording their music and simply giving it way could have been justified as marketing for the band’s live shows.