This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on key concepts discussed in the preceding chapter of this book. The book provides a variety of case studies covering different geographical regions and scales, and social, political and cultural contexts. It describes the debate on transboundary conservation in the marine environment, specifically identifying the role of regional cooperation, recognising that regional agreements make up to two-thirds of all international treaties. The book pathways influence' framework was taken as a starting point to frame the key factors that guide the development of transboundary marine conservation initiatives. Even within the territorial sea, coastal states not interfere with innocent passage' when designating marine protected areas (MPAs). Within the case studies some of large area marine management (LAMM) framework for the promotion of ecosystem-based management (EBM) exists. Initiatives should not only address social inclusion but financial inclusion to ensure that market systems in place reflect local priorities to balance social and ecological outcomes.