The Strait of Bonifacio represents one of the most significant environmental regions in the western Mediterranean. It is populated by numerous marine and terrestrial species characteristic of Mediterranean ecosystems, many of which are endangered, endemic or protected by international conventions or European legislation. The environment and the landscape of this strait, between Corsica and Sardinia, is a cross-border area with its own specificities, unique landscapes and biological characteristics. It has always been considered extremely sensitive due to the many threats of the region and the general risk of a chronic deterioration. Pressures range from uncontrolled tourism to industrial maritime traffic with particular reference to oil tankers and transport of dangerous goods. Although the richness and vulnerability of this region has been recognised for a long time, little has been done through formal legal means, especially at international level, to ensure its effective protection and create an international marine protected area.