Among the broad range of phenomena encompassed by the disaster category, the focus of this chapter is on a specific type of event: organizational accidents. The past few decades have seen an increase in number, size and technological complexity of formal organizations. Simultaneously, the possibilities of adverse consequences for social systems as side-effects of human activities have been on the rise as well. These adverse consequences have become a crucial object of research among different disciplines. In this chapter, we focus on a specific view of organizational accidents, combining a classic sociological approach to human actions with insights from different disciplines such as organizational theory, management sciences, engineering, cognitive psychology and safety sciences.