This chapter focuses on music learning, which becomes limited to musical basic skills established by a standardized curriculum. Musical fluency refers to the aural ability to image music coupled with the skill of handling an instrument, or ability of performers to articulate the sounds in their heads through instruments. The traditional school instrumental music program is centered on the orchestra or concert band and its many performances throughout the year. The chapter discusses the conceptualization of democratic education as it relates to music education as a whole and, specifically, to the improvisation study. Recent educational policies and reform efforts have turned away from democratic goals for public education. Historically, the purpose of public schooling was to develop citizens who could participate in America's democratic society. Many aspects constitute democratic practice including, but not limited to: implementing civics education, teaching for social justice, working collaboratively to foster interdependence, developing students' creative and critical thinking, and allowing for free and independent thought.