chapter  6
Legitimation and repression in the Soviet state (1917–91)
Pages 29

Ideocracies permeate society with a tight-knit network of material dependencies of the individual on the state from which the former cannot easily liberate him or herself. The integration of elites and citizens follows a consistent pattern in ideocracies, especially Communist ideocracies, which differs distinctly from the integration patterns of other types of regimes. Communist regimes tolerated influential political elites outside the regime merely during their consolidation phase directly after World War II in Eastern and Central Europe and during their downfall phase in East-Central and Eastern Europe from 19891991. The more positions and goods a political regime has to offer, the better is its capability to integrate elites and citizens. The Fascist and the National Socialist regime were ultimately more dependent on concessions to the traditional elites, who still occupied important positions in the state military and bureaucracy. Under the National Socialist regime, people exhibiting "antisocial" behavior were sent to concentration camps.