Section introduction
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We argue that any analysis of the mobilities inherent in cultural/creative city policy formation and implementation is fundamentally incomplete without an accounting for the roles communities play in this process. These communities include art and cultural groups, relevant industrial organizations that compete for power and resources, and ordinary citizens participating in the public good of cultural services or pursuing lifestyles based on cultural consumption. The advent of a ‘creative turn’ in the economic and public aspirations of Asian cities has been marked by fragmentation and contradiction. As argued by Joanne Lim’s chapter on Malaysia, such fragmented conditions pertaining to the construction of cultural cities allow for negotiations to take place, resulting in new ways of thinking, as well as the production of new urban spatial orders. Julie Ren’s chapter on Beijing and Berlin details how art groups have organized strong networks with political machines like foreign embassies to protest controversial issues, such as the demolition of organically formed cultural clusters. Se Hoon Park’s chapter on Busan details how local state developmentalism is negotiated, contested, and ultimately reinvented by local actors as it articulates with cultural/creative city policy formation and implementation. Questions asked in the chapters by Lim, Ren, and Park include:

• Who are the diverse urban actors behind cities’ cultural/creative city agendas? • What are the new community coalitions and alignments fostered through

negotiation and contestation? • How have the various elements of the cultural city agenda been materialized

through negotiations?