Urban knowledge as global-local interplay Today, knowledge about cities is produced and circulated on a global scale. In a competitive economic environment, urban policy-makers are hard pressed to learn the most updated urban theories and ‘best practices’ from around the world and quickly adopt, convert and adjust these into their local contexts to solve local problems. According to recent literature, cities are ‘assembling’ and ‘worlding’ by this global-local interplay of knowledge production (Roy and Ong 2011; McCann and Ward, 2011; MaCann, Roy and Ward, 2013). The process of knowledge production and consumption is beyond simple policy transfer. Rather, it indicates that cities can evolve based on knowledge and policy-making which are locally produced and globally relational.