chapter  5
The European Union and the Balkan wars: Zivilmacht Europa and the “problem from hell”
ByADRIAN G. V. HYDE-PRICE
Pages 20

This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The abundant debate on the European Union's (EU) actorness and power can be found on the conceptual level. EU foreign policy can be analyzed from the angle of a twofold comparative approach: comparative foreign policy assessment combined with a comparative actorness perspective. This chapter presents findings and hypotheses of EU's foreign policy features under the categories of policy effectiveness. These categories are: foreign policy output in terms of policy appropriateness; foreign policy output in terms of "unity of words"; foreign policy outcome (implementation) as "policy resonance"; and foreign policy outcome as policy coordination and "unity of action". The EU is neither always marked by problems of unity of words and action, nor is it the only international actor suffering from fragmented actorness and the subsequent implications regarding its effectiveness and role in international and global affairs.