This chapter examines the underlying and motivating forces surrounding terrorist innovation through the lens of the broader innovation literature in the expectation that these more general insights would also apply to some degree in the context of modern terrorism. It highlights the prominent findings on terrorist innovation, while supplementing them with findings and theories drawn from organizational innovation and learning in the general innovation literature, which can in turn be utilized to guide our interpretation of the case study evidence of terrorism. Strategic concerns related to overcoming counter measures or forestalling competition are not the only internal drivers of innovation. Change agents are actors from outside a defined social domain who seek to encourage adoption of innovations. Scholars assert that periods of increased action and success by security forces can stimulate innovation on the part of terrorist groups as they struggle desperately to survive in a pressure cooker of counter-terrorist activity.