The emergence of French sociology: Émile Durkheim and
A full century has passed since Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) published his two-volume Logical Investigations (1900/1901), which set in motion the phenomenological movement. Many of those who visited Husserl or studied with him came from abroad and were central in the spread of phenomenology. Notably, there was Roman Ingarden from Poland, Koyre from Russia, Aron Gurwitsch from Lithuania, Alfred Schutz from Vienna, Marvin Farber, among others, from the United States, and Jose Ortega y Gassett from Spain, although the last was never a thoroughgoing phenomenologist. Gurwitsch spent a year studying with Husserl and Martin Heidegger in the early 1920s and wrote his dissertation under Max Scheler and then, after Scheler's death, Moritz Geiger. Over the next decade, phenomenological circles inspired by Husserl's work sprang up in both Munich and Gottingen. A full, descriptive account of the structural relations governing the manner in which objects or states of affairs are given in consciousness was the central aim of Husserl's early phenomenology.