chapter  2
Watershed Development Policies and Programs in India
Scope and Constraints of Civil Society Action
ByK. J. Joy
Pages 35

A watershed is a natural geo-hydrological unit of land, which collects rainwater and drains it through a common exit point. The chapter analyses the scope and constraints of civil society action in the context of watershed development policies and programs in India. It focuses on four normative concerns — livelihoods, sustainability, equity and participation/democratization — the professed goals of watershed development. The chapter also describes that bio-physical, social, institutional and property regime characteristics of water-shed development would have a bearing on both the scope and constraints of civil society action in watershed development. The biggest contribution of civil society action is making watershed programmes more participatory. Some leading non-governmental organization in watershed implementation have definitely experimented with different approaches, especially taking up a more integrated farming system approach, combining agriculture with horticulture, silviculture and livestock to diversify livelihood opportunities.