Migrant ethno-architecture can be thought of through three scales of the urban environment that together situate ethno-architecture as focused on unprivileged migrants and on grass-roots processes of development, construction and design. First is the city-wide scale, where studies have shown how different policy programs have designed the distribution of immigrants in western cities (e.g. Tzfadia and Yacobi 2007). The second scale is the neighbourhood, where the urban landscape has mostly been influenced by the immigrants’ presence in the construction of public ‘ethnic’ buildings, business signs in foreign languages, or housing, generating reactions from local residents to that change (e.g. Allon 2002; Mitchell 2004).