Inland river ports
Inland river ports represent a subset of ports that receive relatively little attention outside their own limited milieus. Academic focus in particular has been on deep-sea ports, and there is a large literature that has developed on port morphologies, traffic evolution, economic impacts, port-urban relationships, governance etc. (Notteboom, 2013; Rodrigue et al. 2009). We suggest that the principal reason for this is that deep-sea ports are particularly involved in container handling, and that as a relatively new activity container handling has generated significant impacts that are transforming port economics and operations, the shipping industry itself and global networks. Inland ports, in comparison, remain dominated by bulk commodities, activities that are perceived to be less complex and less dynamic. It is interesting to note that the bulk business of deep-sea ports too remains under-researched in the academic literature.