This chapter addresses the developments, emphasizing technology-augmented courtrooms and the degree to which trials may become virtual ones. It concentrates on criminal matters, recognizing, however, that most courts deal with criminal and civil matters. A courthouse includes not only the trial and/or appellate courtrooms responsible for adjudication, it necessarily includes the offices, storage areas, holding cells, and similar spaces required for the court's operations. Center for Legal and Court Technology (CLCT) video experiments have substantiated the possible use even of smartphones for remote video judicial applications. Electronic filing is the means by which parties and counsel may submit documents such as motions to the court via the Internet. Although most of the world's multi-billion dollar electronic discovery industry is concerned with civil cases, search for and acquisition of emails, texts, cell phone records, social media postings, and other forms of electronic data for potential evidentiary use at trial is now fairly common.