France suffered several significant jihadist assaults in less than four years. This reversal of fortune was not due to any major change in the state's approach to counterterrorism. The chapter provides a brief overview of the evolution of terrorism and counterterrorism in France. Among European countries, France is one of the states with the most extensive experience of terrorism. The chapter examines France's legal framework for terrorism cases and its approach to investigating political violence. French officials believe that it was a mistake on the part of the United States to set up extraordinary procedures and military trials for terrorism suspects after 9/11. The chapter considers the organisation of French counterterrorism, with a particular focus on intelligence and law enforcement. France has succeeded in forging close links between intelligence agencies and judicial actors, which has considerable benefits for counterterrorism.