This chapter provides an overview of terrorism in India, including a description of the various terrorist groups operating within the country. It presents an overview of the various counter-terrorism strategies employed by India, including the existing anti-terrorism legal framework. The chapter presents a 'successes and failures' section regarding terrorism and counter-terrorism in India. India is no stranger to terrorism. Terrorist acts, including arson, armed attacks, assassinations, bombings, hostage-taking, hijackings, and kidnappings, have been a regular occurrence across the country, particularly since the early-1980s. Terrorism in India is broadly classified into three types on the basis of the motivations and aspirations of the individuals/groups that engage in violence. They include ethno-nationalist terrorism, religious fundamentalist terrorism, and left-wing terrorism (or ideology-based terrorism). The military and political approach has been combined with a strong focus on development of infrastructure and delivery of public services.