This chapter seeks to offer a general introduction to some major events, key individuals and important processes linked to terrorism both inside – and to a lesser degree, outside – Russia. It provides a brief overview of the post-Soviet milieu, which did much to shape terrorism in Russia. The chapter focuses on major instances of conflict-related hostage-taking, such as the raid on Budyonnovsk in 1995, linked to the conflicts in the North Caucasus. It details the conflict-related suicide attacks, and campaigns of terrorism linked to the aftermath of the re-invasion of Chechnya in October 1999. The chapter explores the significance of key figures – including Shamil Basayev, Ali Taziev and Doku Umarov – involved in the campaigns of terrorism. It offers a more detailed overview of the hostage-taking incident in Beslan in 2004, which remains the most significant instance of terrorism in the last 20 years.