Examining self and social iden tity processes in educa tional contexts can have one of two foci. The first involves exam in a tion of how self and iden tity processes affect educa tional outcomes; the second exam ines how specific educa tional processes affect self and iden tity. Although both processes are impli citly recog nised in the current chapter, our precise focus is how educa tional contexts – and educa tion more broadly – can serve as a battle ground between iden tit ies in a world comprising groups that differ in power and status. Identities are not simply trans por ted into educa tional contexts; nor are they pass ively and benignly formed within them. Rather, educa tional contexts, includ ing formal school ing as prac ticed in many cultures, serve to construct specific iden tit ies. These iden tit ies are instilled into students, often with the expli cit intent of denying, devalu ing and destroy ing exist ing personal and social iden tit ies of these students. In doing so, schools can become instru ments of hege monic iden tity impos i tion.