Theoretical orientations among Psy.D. clinical programs, their review indicated that faculty were primarily cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and systems. Ideally, graduates from a dual-orientation training program would use empirical evidence to determine which intervention strategies would be optimal for a given therapist and client. Clinicians typically define their practice in terms of an allegiance to a particular theory or therapeutic orientation. Norcross and Halgin summarize various models of psychotherapy integration and the issues and challenges inherent in clinical training. The evidence-based practice (EBP) model as the selection of a treatment approach based solely on the empirical evidence of psychotherapy research. Common principles of change refer to a level of abstraction that is more specific than theory but more general than strategies or techniques and has been delineated broadly. The administration of a clinical training program with a commitment to a dual theoretical orientation has varied challenges in the current academic environment.