chapter  13
Glocalization and Co-Creation: Trends in International Game Production
ByMIGUEL Á. BERNAL-MERINO
Pages 19

Video games have consolidated their place in today’s entertainment landscape establishing interactivity as their unique selling point (USP) where players are invited to embody heroes, inuence soundtracks, direct cameras, explore personalities, compete with players around the globe, modify stories, and create playable Mods (player generated levels). In short, although interactive entertainment may utilize content, ideas, and techniques from products such as literature, comics, cinema, music, table games, and TV, games give players decision power over a wide array of elements that changes the gaming experience every time. Surprisingly, although all game companies expect foreign revenues, many still forego internationalization, making localization unnecessarily costly and time-consuming (BernalMerino, 2015). Translating and rewriting strategies originated in the realm of literature (Bassnett, 1993; Saussy, 2006), there are examples of localization in children’s literature and comics (Lathey, 2006, 2010; Pilcher & Brooks, 2005; Zanettin, 2008). Adaptation and crosspollination amongst the different arts have been common for centuries. For example, the Spanish stage play Don Juan became the Italian opera Don Giovanni by Austrian composer Mozart 157 years later. Nevertheless, the localization needs of interactive entertainment seem to exceed those of all other media. For this reason, the game industry is rening all previous processes of rewriting, adapting, and localizing and forging a new model. In order for companies to maximize prot and IP value, the international production strategy needs to be glocalized. In other words, it requires a game design and workow that integrates the contribution of locale-knowledgeable partners in language, culture, and game development so that the reception of the game in foreign lands is not left to chance. This chapter analyzes the new trend that reframes localization within glocalization, a strategy that acknowledges and favors the global market ab initio, where co-creation with in-country partners is integrated in international production, offering foreign consumers the true immersive experience that game designers have crafted for their compatriots.

Digital natives have taken to interactive media in high numbers. Fifty-nine % of US citizens (ESA, 2014) and 48.5% of EU citizens (ISFE, 2012) play