chapter  2
9 Pages

Nature in buildings and health design

WithSTEPHEN R. KELLERT

Theory backed by a growing body of evidence increasingly indicates people possess an inherent inclination to affiliate with the non-human environment – other species and the natural habitats, systems, and processes we commonly refer to as nature (Kellert 2012). This theory has been called Biophilia (Wilson 1986, Kellert and Wilson 1993, Kellert 1997, 2012). Biophilia represents an understanding of human evolutionary biology, recognizing that for almost all human history our species evolved in adaptive response to largely natural not artificial forces and stimuli. Indeed, much of what we regard as ‘normal’ today is of relatively recent origin – the invention of large-scale agriculture some 10-12,000 years ago, the creation of the city some 5-6000 years ago, industrial revolution 2-300 years ago, and lately the electronic era. As a consequence, the human body, mind, and senses evolutionarily developed under mainly the pressure of bio-centric not human invented or engineered factors.