Theories of cognition and learning commonly deployed to analyze time spans ranging from seconds to minutes fall into two broad categories: cognitivist and interactionist. The cognitivist perspective and interactionist perspective are in tension with respect to the ontology and locus of knowledge/knowing and learning and the role and ontology of context. One perspective explores knowledge structures that contribute to particular behaviors while the other explores behaviors as emergent from interactions between human(s) and their cultural and socio-physical environment. Greeno, calls these perspectives incommensurable, due to their different ontologies of learning. By this account, a knowledge analysis (KA) and an interaction analysis (IA) of a given event can be combined to provide multiple insights into the phenomena under investigation but cannot be truly integrated in the sense of providing a unified account based on a single coherent theoretical perspective. Gupta and Elby tried to analyze why Jim sticks with his equation-based answer.