This chapter argues that non-government organizations (NGO) play a greater part in the international legal and integrity systems than in most domestic legal and integrity systems. It also argues that there is a role for an Independent International Law Tribunal (IITL) to be established to fill an institutional gap that has been created because many sovereign states have been unwilling to accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and other courts. NGO tribunals are generally created to fill an institutional gap. In essence, these tribunals provide an opportunity for 'the public' seeking to participate and to draw attention to an inability to get justice because of various deficiencies occurring in the state-backed judicial and legal system. Responsibility to Protect (R2P) recognizes the principal responsibility for civilian protection lies with the relevant sovereign state. But if they are unable or unwilling to protect their population, the international community has a responsibility to step in.