Most of us in translation work or theory go about our tasks unaware of how we have been shaped by events that occurred two hundred years ago. Through the eighteenth century, residual traces of medieval theology and Renaissance humanism continued to inform, though with less and less authority, notions of universals existing across all languages. Many language historians have traced the multiple legacies of the Enlightenment in translation theory, and the changing history of concepts of language and translation among Romantics, Victorians, modernists, and their successors. As strands of these notions of the foreign and the native language enter the widening currents of European Romanticism, the concept of translatio clearly gets new definition and point. Just as both psychoanalysis and semiotics look for erasures, that which signs repress, it is again ironic that bilingual theorists so often elided bilinguality as a category of social being.