Nineteenth-century realists achieved the Romantic agenda for literary language in sometimes scandalous ways, rendering the speech of prostitutes and blacksmiths with the same seriousness as that of the higher classes. It is not only normative literary discourse that undergoes this kind of amplification into new registers and tonalities, but also language itself gradually becomes one of the topics of modernist literature. Historians investigating the relations of natio and language generally break the centuries of a vernacular's development into stages, which can be dated: its emergence as the literary language, its first grammars, and the political consolidation of the nation-state structure. Most analysts of bilingualism are sociolinguists who examine the interrelations of languages within one society and usually one stratum of it, such as immigrant communities. In translation studies, typically cross-cultural communication theories address the gaps between originals and translations, in various modes of diminution.