A. Changing Concepts of Language and Translation
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Most of us in translation work or theory go about our tasks unaware of how we have been shaped by events that occurred two hundred years ago. By the end of the early modern period, as we saw in Part 2, language had become the object of treatises and polemics in several European milieus. To be sure, the controversy about whether language is a natural endowment or a social convention had arisen among ancient Greeks, as in Plato’s Cratylus, and was never resolved. But it was effectively reconfigured around the turn of the nineteenth century.