In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness that a codified native-speaker model of the language fails to describe the linguistic reality of English. Non-native speakers now outnumber native English speakers (Graddol 1997, Crystal 2003), and “the majority of uses of English occur in contexts where it serves as a lingua franca, far removed from its native speakers’ linguacultural norms and identities” (Seidlhofer 2001:133-34). Consequently, there is a growing tendency among linguists to accept a more pluricentric view of English. Canagarajah (2006:199) observes that many
scholars are “adopting the position that English is a heterogeneous language with multiple norms and diverse systems”.