chapter  2
Understanding and reducing the anthropogenic heat emission
ByNEK TA RIOSCHRYSOULAKISANDC.S.B. GRIMMOND
Pages 14

During the past few decades, environmental, physical and architectural research has caused a fast evolution in outdoor urban environmental models. Urban areas alter the material and aerodynamic character of the surface, greatly affecting the surface energy balance, as well as the dynamic and thermodynamic nature of the boundary layer. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is a numerical method of modeling complex fluid flow by breaking down geometry into cells that comprise a mesh. The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach is a modeling method in which the major variables such as temperature and velocity are divided into time-averaged and turbulent fluctuation, and then the turbulent model is used to model the turbulent fluctuation. PHOENICS was developed by Concentration Heat and Momentum Limited (CHAM) and is a multi-purpose computational fluid dynamic. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a non-hydrostatic, compressible model with a mass coordinate system.