Walking the Diversity Rationale Talk: A Call to Institutions
Since the year 2000, the United States Supreme Court has deliberated six cases that directly or indirectly concerned the future of afﬁ rmative action. In chronological order, these cases were Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), Gratz v. Bollinger (2003), Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (2007) , Ricci v. DeStefano (2009), Fisher v. University of Texas (2013), and Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Afﬁ rmative Action (2014). The question at the center of each of these cases was what role, if any, race should have in policymaking, including deciding university admissions, K-12 school assignments, and employment promotion criteria. Four of these cases-Grutter, Gratz, Fisher, and Schuette —speciﬁ cally addressed the issue of afﬁ rmative action in university admissions. And while the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) 2 remains edict, Grutter, Gratz, Fisher, and most recently Schuette have all sought to challenge afﬁ rmative action’s legal standing.