This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores the themes of collective memory, space, place, identity and diversity as it relates to selected sites within the region. It examines predominantly Uyghur-Han interactions and the two-way power dynamics at play. The book analyses the increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among Uyghurs, and demonstrates the problematic government policies that have resulted in increasing HIV infection across the province. It attempts to analyse what life is like in Xinjiang for the diverse population that lives there. The book offers important insights into the social, economic and political terrains of Xinjiang. It demonstrates the tangled web of analysis as people's lives intersect with government policies, and remembers that even within groupings such as 'Han' and 'Uyghur' there exists a vast array of voices and opinions.