This chapter examines the structural vulnerability of Uyghur adolescents to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Such structural vulnerabilities are examined from economic, educational, cultural and political perspectives. The chapter analyses the acceptance that structural factors such as poverty, lack of education, falling victim to human trafficking. It posits the structural factors underlying Uyghur adolescents' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS that provides evidence to tackle root causes of rising HIV epidemics in this age group in Xinjiang. The chapter proposes that combining information provision with structural approaches might be able to bring more sustainable and long-term positive effects on HIV/AIDS prevention in this region. It demonstrates the structural factors, and their link to increased HIV/AIDS vulnerability, require urgent and adequate attention from authorities and policy makers. The chapter also demonstrates that Uyghur street children in inland Chinese cities are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS.