chapter  9
Examining cognitive function in type 2 diabetes: the importance of an inclusive research approach
ByJones, Nicola, Greer, Joanna, Riby, Leigh and Smith, Michael
Pages 21

The world’s population is living longer and consequently the prevalence of problems in glucoregulation or glucoregulatory efficiency (i.e. the efficiency with which the human body processes blood glucose) is also increasing (World Health Organisation [WHO]). The combined detrimental effects of ageing and impaired glucoregulation on the brain and cognition have been well documented (Biessels, 1999; Biessels, van der Heide, Kamal, Bleys, & Gispen, 2002; Gispen & Biessels, 2000; Kodl & Seaquist, 2008; Kumar, Looi, & Raphael, 2009; Lamport, Lawton, Mansfield, & Dye, 2009; McCrimmon, Ryan, & Frier, 2012; Reijmer, van den Berg, Ruis, Kappelle, & Biessels, 2010; Ryan & Geckle, 2000; Samaras & Sachdev, 2012; Starr & Convit, 2007; Strachan, 2011; Strachan, Reynolds, Marioni, & Price, 2011), particularly in episodic memory (Lamport et al., 2009; Messier, 2005). Glucoregulation is more frequently impaired in older adults, relative to younger adults (Messier, 2005). If older adults exhibit a decline in both their ability to metabolise glucose efficiently and memory performance, it is possible that impairments in glucoregulation may partly account for memory deficits in ageing.