This chapter examines China's current and future energy needs and the strategies the government and enterprises are pursuing to enhance the security of energy supply. Securing an adequate supply of energy to support a growing economy has been a constant concern of China's government since 1949. At the same time as the government was formulating new policies to reduce national energy intensity, it realised that climate change was also an urgent challenge. In contrast to this relatively relaxed attitude to international energy security, the government's realization in 2004 that the country faced a major shortfall in domestic energy supplies, particularly of electricity, brought energy security right to the top of the agenda. At the same time, many developing and emerging nations will be seeking supplies from international markets. As the domestic demand for energy in the world's current oil-exporting nations rises, these countries will become net importers and the number of net exporters of oil will become progressively more limited.