This chapter examines the long-term trends of Italian migration to Australia according to the theoretical framework. It deals with Italian migration to Australia in the long run and focuses on the flows of very recent decades and the skilled migration process. It also discusses the effect of the economic crisis on migration and on the relationship between Italy and Australia. It has been estimated that since the end of the Second World War, more than seven million immigrants have entered Australia. The federal government acknowledges the contribution of Italian immigrants to the local society, and as a result of this, a cultural cooperation agreement with the Italian Republic was signed. Economic recession usually creates a climate conducive to a restrictive regime of international migration. The Italian government does not have the means to effectively implement the law on immigration, an issue that could paradoxically produce an increasing number of illegal immigrants in the country.