This chapter attempts to put into perspective the long course and its pathways toward the full integration and participation of foreign people in the Belgium political sphere. It traces a general overview of the historical context of the immigration dynamic in Belgium before bringing to light the impact of the European integration process. Anti-immigration sentiment increased rapidly, and in some countries this was reflected in policy tightening aimed against labour migrants. The Belgium political sphere on Local and Regional Democracy (CDLR) was first set up in 1967 to make it possible for the governments of member states to discuss issues of local and regional democracy and to pave the way for greater European co-operation in this area. The Maastricht Treaty provided a new impetus for the construction of a European Political Union. The legal concept of citizenship of the EU was formally introduced into the EC Treaty by the Treaty of Maastricht.