This chapter analyses migration, cross-border cooperation and citizenship in two EU external border communities through the lens of 'the social contract'. It examines how the convergence of different levels of citizenship affects territories and their residents at the EU's external borders. The chapter reflects on empirical research conducted in Spain-Morocco and Italy-Albania. The premise for the chapter is that social contracts are perpetually renegotiated by residents of cross-border regions and thus, citizenship has been de-territorialized in that economic, social, and political rights reflect developments in transnational integration. It argues that 'social contracts' may provide a lens through which we can understand this phenomenon. The chapter discusses how these priorities are negotiated in two EU border communities. It argues that the migration and border studies literatures could benefit from more explicit discussions of social contracts.