Uneven and Combined Development and Unequal Exchange: The Second Wind of Neoliberal ‘Free Trade’?
ABSTRACT With capitalist social relations emerging in a prior system of absolutist states in
Europe, the outward expansion of capitalism through conditions of uneven and combined
development became dependent on the existence of multiple political entities. States in turn
are brought into relations of unequal exchange within the global economy. This article
analyses the way in which current neoliberal ‘free trade’ policies are related to these
fundamental capitalist dynamics, deepening further processes of uneven and combined
development as well as unequal exchange.