A main theme of gender mainstreaming Security Sector Reform (SSR) is the inclusion of women in security reform processes. SSR often arises out of peace processes and forms part of post-conflict reconstruction efforts. Conventional notions of security, including its use in security sector reform are defined in relation to the nation state. Feminist efforts to redefine the security resonate with the conceptualisations of human security that have recently made in roads in African security thinking. Rigid aggressive masculinities that idealise aggression, competitiveness, censure of emotional expression, and the creation and dehumanisation of the 'enemy' continue to dominate millitary armies, police forces, and other security structures. According to a study by Refugee International on sexual exploitation in militaries, 'Even the best trained militaries must still work to eliminate this problem among its forces'. The origin of the African militaries is largely located in the colonial project.