chapter  9
Sexual Violence, Female Agencies, and Sexual Consent: Complexities of Sexual Violence in the 1994 Rwandan Genocide
Pages 14

Sexual violence-ranging from forced marriage to rape to sexual torture and mutilation-was used as a weapon of genocide to torture, terrorize, or kill Tutsi women and girls and to reward militiamen and male civilians who participated in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. 1 The majority of psychological, legal, and human rights research on sexual violence in Rwanda has focused on sexual violence perpetrated by Hutu perpetrators against Tutsi victims (see, e.g., Taylor 1999; Brunet and Helal 1998; Mukamana 2008; Zraly 2008; Zraly and Nyirazinyoye 2010). 2 Yet sexual violence was a signifi cant threat for women from all ethnic groups in Rwanda during the prolonged civil war, which began on October 1, 1990, and ended sometime in 2001. 3 To indicate the scope of the problem, an epidemiological survey of 921 women who lived in Rwanda in 1994 found that 45.8 percent of them had been raped (Fabri et al. 2007, 5).