Children experience many transitions in the ages 3-7: from home to a school environment, from play-based learning to more formal teaching, from ‘areas of learning’ to the subject-based National Curriculum. Widespread research evidence suggests that many young children might find the transition to primary school confusing as they move out of an environment of autonomy into one of conformity. Drawing upon research and new case studies, this chapter will consider the nature of progression in science through the 3 to 7 age range, explore the tensions faced by teachers in the light of sometimes conflicting requirements and will conclude with suggestions for practice to reduce children’s experiences of discontinuities. This chapter will mostly focus on the transition between the
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end of the foundation stage and start of Key Stage 1 but will also consider the ways in which children can be supported in making a transition to Key Stage 2 ways of working in Year 2 (age 7).