The Alan Guttmacher Institute (1994) reported that, in 1993, 3.8 million mothers ages 15 to 44 received welfare or Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Of these, 55% were teenagers when they had their first child. However, only 5% were teenagers when they established their own welfare budgets. Typically, adolescent mothers from families on welfare are not eligible to establish independent welfare budgets before age 18. The few who do are not in the custody of their families because of homelessness, neglect, or abuse. Even after they reach 18, few single mothers can meet their basic needs on welfare alone (Edlin & Jencks, 1992; Edlin & Lein, 1996).