Two distinct purposes characterize LIS journals: some publish research, while others publish professional information for practitioners. When considering the pool of LIS journals, therefore, no distinction was made between scholarly research journals and professional information journals or between refereed or non-refereed journals. The universe of LIS journals was first identified by reference to the 37th edition of Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory, 1999. For a more selective list of LIS journals, two sources were consulted: Katz’ Magazines for Libraries, Ninth Edition
(1997) and Bowman’s Library and Information Science Journals and Serials: An Analytical Guide (1985).