Counting as the Chimpanzee Views It
The initial training phase just described, consisting of the elaborated one-to-one correspondence task using static arrays, had been designed to address a pivotal principle found in every model of counting, known as the one-one principle. If our chimpanzees were to employ tagging as described for counting in young children, it would ultimately be essential for them to recognize the one-to-one relationship between representative symbols and the corresponding number of items in an array. In light of Sheba's extensive training on counting, it seems reasonable to suggest that she was able to employ a counting algorithm such as counting-on, when first confronted with different, arrays placed in two spatial locations. The literature on emergent counting principles observed in very young children's addition and substraction performance may provide theoretical support for Sheba's performance on the functional and symbolic counting tasks. The functional counting task required Sheba to locate an array, encode its quantity, move to another location.