chapter  8
Rorschaching in North America in the Shadow of Hallowell
ByGeorge Spindler, Louise Spindler
Pages 28

Our research with the Menominee Indians of Wisconsin (1948–1954) and intermittently, since that time, was inspired by A. Irving Hallowell’s earlier studies in the 1930s and 1940s of the Chippewa of Northern Wisconsin and the Ojibwa of Canada (Hallowell, 1955, 1956, 1976). 1 The Ojibwa, Chippewa, and Menominee are closely related culturally and were, at the time of the studies, distributed acculturatively from a culturally intact baseline among the Inland Ojibwa to a virtually culturally assimilated Menominee socioeconomic elite. At the time, it was thought that the projective techniques, and particularly the Rorschach ink blots, could be used to define personality structure cross-culturally, because the ink blots were thought to be “culture-free” (Henry et al., 1955). This assumption did not long remain unchallenged, as was the case with most of the assumptions of the personality and culture movement that flourished in the 1940s and early 1950s.