As Moshman (2015) noted, “Epistemic cognition is a topic in cognitive psychology that concerns people’s knowledge about matters of epistemology, a topic in philosophy” (p. 1). We identify as scholars in the fields of science education and the learning sciences, and we have studied youths’ science-related learning across settings and over time (e.g. Bell, Bricker, Reeve, Zimmerman, & Tzou, 2012a). As readers who are familiar with learning-across-settings literature from our two fields will know, many scholars who explore learning in this way do not theorize about epistemology or epistemic cognition specifically.1 We wish to use this chapter to argue for focused attention on people’s epistemic cognition across settings and over time, and we draw in large part on Chinn et al. (2011) to support our claims.