chapter  4
Principles for Personalized Instruction
ByWilliam R. Watson, Sunnie Lee Watson
Pages 28

The information-age paradigm of instruction is customized rather than standardized, learning-focused rather than content-delivery focused, studentdirected (or jointly directed) rather than teacher-directed, and entails active learning rather than passive learning, as described in Chapter 1 of this volume and Chapter 1 of Volume II (Reigeluth, 1999). While the theoretical underpinnings of personalized instruction share a number of commonalities with other frequently utilized terms, such as customized, learner-centered, individualized, self-directed, and independent, this chapter describes the nature of personalized instruction specifically for the realization of an information-age, learning-based paradigm.