chapter  12
The Heyneman/Loxley effect: three decades of debate
ByStephen Heyneman
Pages 18

While the lower performance of students from particular ethnic and income groups and geographical regions was a long-demonstrated outcome of standardised testing (Francher and Rutherford 2012; Stodolsky 1997; Ogbu 1991), the application of computers to the question was new in the 1960s. The report of James S. Coleman et al. (1966) was among the first surveys of a nationally representative population and the first to combine multiple factors into discrete categories representing those from out-of-school and within school influences.1 Conclusions from this report were stunning because they ran counter to long-held assumptions. Gamoran and Long (2007) quote Seymour Martin Lipset as remarking to Daniel Moynihan that Coleman had found that “schools make no difference, families make the difference.”