Much has been achieved since Education for All (EFA) goals were set in Dakar, Senegal, in the year 2000. More children are in school than ever before, with many countries narrowing the gap in enrolment between girls and boys. However, despite progress, none of the six goals will be met by 2015 (UNESCO 2014a). This is neither an argument for complacency nor is it a reason to turn our backs on targets that aim to hold policymakers to account. It is, though, a reason to reflect on experience over the past 15 years and to learn lessons for post-2015 goals.